Louis LeFleur, Frontiersman

Surprisingly little has been written about Louis LeFleur, who gave his name to Jackson’s Pearl River bluff, became the father of the last chief of the Choctaw Nation (Greenwood LeFlore) and much of it is inaccurate, the most glaring error being that he was a French-Canadian when in fact he was born in the tiny French colony of “Mobille” surrounding Fort Condé on the Gulf of Mexico.

Louis LeFleur was born Louis LeFlau; since by custom Louis eventually came to be known as LeFleur, we’ll use that name throughout to refer to him as LeFlore will be used in reference to his son Greenwood. Louis’ father, Jean Baptiste LeFlau came from France in the early 18th century as a soldier in the Fort Condé garrison. In 1735, he married Jeanne Boissinot, a native of Mobile, who bore him three children before her death in 1752. Jean Baptiste then married Jeanne Girard in 1753 and Louis, their third child, was born on June 29, 1762. There are no records of Louis LeFlau after his baptismal entry of 1762 until around 1790, but it’s certain that during this time he began trading with Native Americans, primarily the Choctaws, and likely operated flat-boats on the Amite and Pearl Rivers as well as in the Mississippi Sound.

LeFleur epitomizes those men of the American frontier who plied their trade along the navigable rivers in a wilderness before, during and even after the advent of steamboats and the eventual dominance of rail. In Antebellum Natchez James D. Clayton writes that “L. LeFleur (sic), father of a celebrated Choctaw Chieftain of a later era, operated with handsome profits the main boat shuttle to Pensacola, carrying produce and commodities.” He brought luxury items to the prosperous city of Natchez, including “fine apparel” which “had been ordered from Panton, Leslie, and Company of St. Marks in east Florida.” The boats LeFleur and those like him used were flatboats or keelboats that were manned by a crew of up to twenty-five people. The goods LeFleur routinely carried were much less luxurious used in his trade with the Choctaw, and the pelts he secured were sold in the trading houses at St. Marks and Pensacola. Corn and other farm products were sold in in Florida and Natchez.

Sometime around 1790, LeFleur cheerfully adopted the Choctaw system of polygamy and married both Nancy and Rebecca Cravat, the half-French nieces of the Choctaw Chief Pushmataha. LeFleur moved his growing family—three children were born by 1798—to Pass Christian, but with the establishment of the Choctaw Agency near present-day Jackson, he chose as a location for a new home a high bluff on the west side of the Pearl River, rising some twenty-five feet above the crest of the floods and extending along the river for several hundred feet. With the opening on the Natchez Trace under the treaty of Fort Adams in 1801, LeFleur opened a way station in the same location where traders, travelers and mail carriers could secure fresh horses. This station rapidly became an inn providing bed and board as well as entertainment. The actual site of this trading post is disputed. Greenwood was the first of the “LeFlau” sons to be born at LeFleur’s Bluff on June 2, 1800. He was named for the Greenwood in the firm of Greenwood and Higginson who were the London correspondents of the founder of Panton and Leslie.

LeFleur still operated his profitable boating trade, securing commissions from General William C.C. Claiborne, Governor and Commander-in-Chief of the newly organized (1798) Mississippi Territory to carry “certain goods sent by the United States as presents to the Choctaw Nation of Indians.” He also carried messages to the Governor of the Province of Louisiana. In addition to being entrusted with the delivery of merchandise making up the government annuity payments to the Choctaw Nation, Louis was asked to be present at the occasions when terms of treaties were negotiated. Louis “Leflow” is listed as one of the witnesses to the Treaty of Mount Dexter on November 16, 1805, which conveyed large amounts of land in what is now southeastern Mississippi and southwestern Alabama, including much of the western portion of Clarke County, Alabama, to the United States.

By 1810, operation of the inn and raising cattle had become LeFleur’s main enterprises, and he, along with Louis Durant, was said to have introduced cattle into Mississippi. Travelers from the east and from foreign lands have mentioned the accommodations at the Bluff and at the inn he established in 1812 at the place now known as French Camp. At French Camp, LeFleur had a number of buildings erected and it was here in 1812 that Major John Donly, who held the U.S. Government contract for transporting the mail on the Nashville-Natchez route, suggested to Louis that he be allowed to take young Greenwood home to Nashville with him in order that the boy might receive an “American education”, and LeFleur consented. Louis served with Pushmataha under Andrew Jackson in the War of 1812 and was promoted to the rank of major (brevet). He also served three months in 1814 in command of a company on Russell’s expedition to Alabama. He later served in the campaign to Pensacola in 1814-15.

With the introduction of the steamboat on the Mississippi River—the New Orleans was the first steamboat down the Mississippi in 1811—commerce along the Trace fell, but LeFleur expanded his agricultural interests and in a decade tripled their acreage in cultivation and heads of cattle. Greenwood was elected Chief of the Northwestern Division of the Choctaws, but when Jackson was elected president in 1828 he pursued a policy of negating the treaties between the U.S. and the Choctaws, and with the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek (1830) the Choctaws were forcibly removed from their ancestral lands. In a survey of freeholds within the Choctaw lands is a record for “Louis LeFlau, 300 acres in cultivation in the Yazoo Valley; five in family with four males over 16”. Major LeFlau was to receive two sections of land according to the Supplement to the Dancing Rabbit Creek Treaty.

The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek was a tragedy for the Choctaws and it caused deep rifts in the LeFlau/LeFleur/LeFlore family. Details are sketchy, but Greenwood is in the fifth and last level of behests in Louis’ will, which was signed April 16, 1833. Louis LeFleur died that same year, and while his gravesite is unknown, family tradition states that he was buried in Hot Springs, Arkansas, not very far from LeFlore County, Oklahoma.

(Note: This article is a brief summation of preliminary research towards a more thorough examination of Louis LeFleur and should not be considered definitive. By anyone. At any time.)

“Raftsmen Playing Cards” (1847) George Caleb Bingham (1811-1879)

19 Replies to “Louis LeFleur, Frontiersman”

  1. Jesse, the footnote on p. 116 of Claiborne’s “Mississippi, as a province…” indicates that Lefleur was not his real name. I’ve thought it was Cocheneur as the original federal map of the Jackson area has a place name “Cocomew’s” on General Carroll’s road just west of the future town. The name “Cocninear, Nicholas” and “Coeronours, David” appear in the Armstrong rolls. These individuals were located in Trim Cane and Yazoo Valley respectively so that would be in the proper area of the family. Some of this name also removed to Oklahoma.

    1. Charlie, I consulted Elbert Hilliard when writing this article, and he directed me to every source he’d used as director when he was approached by the LeFleur/LeFlore family some years ago for a project, and those sources were multitudinous. I’ll dig out Claiborne and take a look at the footnote, and let’s meet at Welty one morning and I’ll show you the folder I compiled for this.

  2. Jesse,
    That photograph can’t be Louis. He died in 1833 and standard photography wasn’t invented until 1838/39 in France (Daguerre). While there were some photographic techniques as early as the 1820s, they did not produce an image like the one above.

        1. Yes, Mr. Rushing, that is indeed a painting of river boatmen, “Raftsmen Playing Cards” (1847) by the American painter George Caleb Bingham (1811-1879) I used this painting to illustrate the article because LeFleur himself was a boatman and there is no VERIFIABLE image of LeFleur.

  3. The information that was stated about Lewis Lefleur being buried in Hot Springs Arkansas (Garland County)and Hot Spring being near Leflore County Oklahoma is inaccurate. Hot Springs Arkansas is about 130 miles from Leflore County Oklahoma. I am a direct descendant of Lewis Lefleur . My family and I own property in Lefleur(Leflore) County Oklahoma. Also in reference to the Treaty of Dancing Rabbit Creek, this treaty was signed to give the Choctaw natives living in what was Alabama, land in Oklahoma in exchange for the land in( Mississippi became a state in 1817)The Choctaw were forced to leave Alabama on what was called the Trail of Tears. With their exodus, it really preserved the Choctaw Tribe. If they had not of left Mississippi they would of eventually been killed off by the United States Government. Pushamataha the last of the real Choctaw Chiefs said he would not go to war with the United States Government. Several treaties were written up between the United States Government and the Choctaw Tribe,taking the land in Alabama(This area of Alabama would be annexed and become part of the new state of Mississippi)away from the Choctaw peacefully in exchange for the land West of the Mississippi (Oklahoma).

          1. It’s not really true. The Treaty of Dancing Rabbit allowed for exceptions to the removal, notably Louis and Michael LeFlore, their immediate families, and Greenwood LeFlore. These exceptions were hard won and specifically written into the treaty. That’s what caused the rift in the family you discussed. The treaty did provide for other unnamed Choctaw who wanted to stay, but the clause was poorly written, and the US Gov’t wiggled out of it. I’m a direct descendant of Michael LeFlore, BTW, and I’m using great swaths of your article to fill in missing gaps. Hope you don’t mind.

    1. Hi Christine and Jesse! I am adopted and have been discovering/learning about my birth families these last few months. I just have learned (literally today) that Louis Lefleur is my 5th great grandfather. His daughter Clarissa is my 4th great grandmother . John Wilson is my 3rd great grandfather. Harriet (Hattie) Wilson is my 2nd great grandmother, Mary Jane Locke was my great grandmother and Ruth Bennett was my paternal grandmother. This is so exciting to me to learn about my heritage. I appreciate your information here (which I found on Google by chance) I have so much to learn about! I am ready to fly to Mississippi to stand on the land where my ancestors once stood!!

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